2017 WAEC GCE Commerce Answers
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Pipeline transportation can be defined as thetransportation of goods or material through a pipe. ..Such as Crude oil, natural gas, oil
Advantages of Air Transport
3.Easy transport of costly and light goods:
4.Free from physical barriers:
5.Useful in natural calamities:
(i) Product:Perishable goods need speedy movement and shorter route of distribution
(ii) Market:(a) For consumer market, retailer is essential whereas in business market we can eliminate retailing
(b) For large market size, we have many channels, whereas, for small market size direct selling may be profitable
(c) For highly concentrated market, direct selling is preferred whereas for widely scattered and diffused markets, we have many channels of distribution
(iii) Middlemen:(a) Middlemen who can provide wanted marketing services will be given first preference
(b) The middlemen who can offer maximum co-operation in promotional services are also preferred
(iv) Company:(a) The company’s size determines the size of the market, the size of its larger accounts and its ability to set middlemen’s co-operation. A large company may have shorter channel
(b) The company’s product-mix influences the pattern of channels. The broader the product- line, the shorter will be the channel.
i)By performance of the parties i.e. each party completing his obligations as stipulated by the contract
ii)By frustration i.e. an event through no fault of the parties that make one party unable to perform the contract. For example:if one party suffers a prolonged illness which makes him unable to perform the contract
iii)By lapse of time i.e. if the time limit set for the contract to be executed by both parties has been passed. For example, sellers of real estate usually require that the buyers pay the full balance on the property within a certain time period after the initial down payment has been made
iv)By changes in law i.e. where a legal contract is rendered illegal through changes in law
i)act on behalf of and be subject to the control of the principal
ii)act within the scope of authority or power delegated by the principal
iii)discharge his or her duties with appropriate care and diligence
iv)avoid conflict between his or her personal interests and those of the principal
v)promptly hand over to the principal all monies collected on principal’s behalf.
vi)agent owes a duty to the principal to act in the principal’s best interests within the authority of the agent .
(i)Accepting deposits:commercial banks accepts deposits from public for safekeeping.Money can be kept in current,fixed and savings account
(ii)Agents of payment:Commercial: banks can act as an agent of payment on behalf of their customers. They encourage and permit customers to have current account in which they can withdraw without notice by cheque
(iii)Lending to customers:This is perhaps the most profitable function of a commercial bank.Deposits from different customers are pooled together and given out as loan with interest to people and firms for rpofitable investment
(iv)Safekeeping of valuables:One of the function of commercial bank is to keep customers valuables such as jewellery,certificates etc
(v)Discount bill of exchange:Creditors can be paid by the bank immediately by discounting bill of exchange of their customers.This enables the creditor to be paid instantly and the debtor is allowed a period of credit
– Intercepting contraband (such as illegal drugs)
-Checking travellers and their baggage, cargo and mail
-Assessing and collecting Customs duties, excise taxes and Goods and Services Tax (GST) on imports
-Protecting a country businesses against illegal trade
-Enforcing import and export restrictions and prohibitions collecting accurate import and export data
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