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Communalism refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localised independent communities.
(i)There is collective ownership of the resources.
(ii)There is the opportunity for individuals to participate in community development.
(iii)Absence of division of class.
(iv)There is an opportunity for individuals to participate in decision making.
Presidential System of Government is one in which there is an executive President, that is, someone vested with all executive powers and who combines the office of the head of state and head of government.
i)In the Presidential System of Government, the President is both the head of state and head of government and exercises real executive powers.
ii)The President and legislators remain in office for a fixed term.
iii)The President is not chosen by the legislature, but is elected by the electorate directly, or indirectly through an electoral college.
iv)The principle of collective responsibility, which obtains in a cabinet system of government does not apply in a Presidential System of Government.
-Administration: They were involved in the administration of the village
-Performance of public duties: They were involved in the performance of duties such as roads construction, path clearing etc
-Defence of the village:They equally served as a potential army for the defence of the village against an external enemy
-Maintenance of law and order:They act as the police force,for the maintenance of law and order
-Implementation of policies: They also help in the implementation of policies made by council elders
-Evil practices thrived: Most of the traditional rulers were involved in evil practices and the system does not prosecute them for necessary punishment
-It excluded educated Nigerians:The educated Nigerians were excluded from taking part in the colonial administration instead they made use of illiterates
-Development was retarded:Indirect rule was an instrument in maintaining status quo than of development.progress and development were relatively very low especially in the northern part of the country
-Appointment of warrant chiefs: The traditional institutions of the people were neglected and colonial authority appoint warrant chiefs that merely represented the interest of those that appointed them
-Monopoly: The colonial authority monopolised the right to appoint and depose traditional rulers and chiefs without people’s consent.
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