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Factors Affecting Educational Development in Nigeria

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Factors Affecting Educational Development in Nigeria by : 1:01 pm On December 8, 2018

Factors Affecting  Educational Development in Nigeria

The continued stay of man on the planet earth is predicated on his ability to earn a livelihood sustainable by his environment. This is an imperative which education must help man accomplish. Rightly has Fafunwa (1974) describe education as the “aggregate of processes by which a child or young adult develops his abilities, attitudes and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to the society in which he lives!”

Factors affecting Educational Development in Nigeria

Whichever education system that is objectively characterized as functional will overtly be seen to be pursuing some stated objectives. It does not matter whether that system is sited in Africa, Europe or Asia Minor. It stands to reason, therefore, that once our, mind is et on assessing any educational system, we should not do so using a borrowed yardstick. We should rather be guided by this rational principle; does it (and to what extent) perform well in the light of the objectives assigned to it?

In all, mention must be made of the following imperatives in any determined effort to discuss those factors that influence educational development.

  • Social
  • Economic and Finance
  • Geographical
  • Political and
  • Human

In listing these factors they appear to be distinct, one from the other. But then, it is not always that easy to draw a hard and fast line as to where the influence of one ends and another commences. Sometimes they act conjointly.

The Social Factor

Socially, education has the function of preserving and transmitting a society’s cultural heritage from one generation to another. Not just that! It must as well demonstrate a readiness to carry out this function in the present as well as guarantee the future. In this regard, sufficiently prepared efficient machinery must be in place.


Economic Factor

Different people have different environmental, climatic conditions which tend to support or encourage the practice of different lifestyles and support the growth of certain crops, etc and not the others. People should set goals attainable in the light of prevalent existential situations. Furthermore, the scales of such goals must be such that they can prosecute. For instance, it may be more appropriate to teach the Nsukka native farmer in Enugu State of Nigeria the use of fertilizers and crop rotation. It may sound foolish teaching him fishing since nature has not endowed him with any river, and it may require special funding to create artificial water lakes and canals in his area.

Geographical Factor

Somewhat close to the economic factor is the geographical factor. People are differently domiciled. In some places there are forests; in some, hills; in yet some, there are table landscapes. Strictly speaking, it may be economically attractive to engage in certain ventures but geographically it is not feasible. At best the much that one can do is to bargain for postponement.

An illustration may be taken from Aguleri – Out in the Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra state, Nigeria. The settlement is blessed with a large expanse of fertile land immensely capable of sustaining agro-related ventures.

It would appear attractive to site industries there. But then how would the prospecting industrialist ferry the needed construction materials across the river, nor motorable road nor seagoing vessels? Who would even cross on a canoe to patronize the industry without fearing for himself the greatest risk to his dear life?


Political Factor

Not many of us have for once put this question to themselves. Why did the Universal Primary Education (U.P.E) scheme fail in Nigeria and some other countries? The answer is simple: the political needed to make the scheme succeed was not there. Some people reasoned that making it work would mean granting everybody equal opportunity. This would amount to placing everybody at par socially. It is never easy to implement a programme with socialist color in a capitalist enclave. But then, how much capitalist the Nigerian society is, remains a subject of a probe.

Human Factor

There are moments when human thoughts human actions and inactions have influenced the directions of education. Social unrest, political instability, political authority or lack of it, no doubt, influence education either for good or for bad.

Not frequently too, especially in the Nigerian setting, religious issues and conflicts constitute a source of hindrance or a facilitating factor. The extent which these factors impinge positively or negatively on the society in general and education in particular system is judged in terms of functionality and goal attainment or otherwise.


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