Neco 2018 Civic Education Theory and Objective Answers
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Parenthood can be defined as the responsibilities of parents to guide,
protect and provide for the basic needs of their children
i) Protection and defense: It is the responsibility of a father to protect
and defend his family members in times of troubles.
ii) Assurance of peace: It is the primary duty of a father to ensure that
unity, peace, love and harmony reign within his family
iii) Ensuring proper upbringing: It is the duty of a father to ensure the
proper upbringing of his children.
iv) Training of children: It is the priority of the mother to train the
children on basic household chores and help the children to be
v) Love and care: It is the duty of the mother to show love and care to
vi) Support: The mother should be performing the role of a helper; she
should support the husband in his role. E.g. giving financial support,
helping to training the children, giving reasonable advice to the husband
Values can be defined as important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared
by the members of a culture about what is good or bad and desirable or
i) Positive values: positive values applies to things or qualities which
are good, desirable or worthwhile. For example include truth telling, hard
work, obedience etc.
ii) Negative values: This is a bad value, unacceptable or worthless value
that the society frown at. Examples includes late coming to school,
truancy, lying, armed robbery, indecent dressing , fraudulent acts, etc.
iii) Intrinsic values: Something has intrinsic value when it is good or
desirable for its own sake and in itself. For example, good music,
beautiful flowers, particular dress, type of handset, type of house and
other value giving satisfaction to the beholder.
iv) Instrumental values: This is value that persons attach to objects or
things that can be used for achieving another thing. For example, a good
knife, a good music, a good handset. Also, drugs can be an
instrumental value because prescribed drug cures illness etc.
v) Absolute values: These are values that are not conditioned or stick to
time, place or circumstance. They are always positive, good and
worthwhile. They are always refer to as eternal and universal values,
they hold positive and good at all places, circumstances and at all
times. Examples of such values are: trust, honesty, hard work,
discipline, tolerance, obedience etc.
vi) Relative values: These values depends on time, place or
circumstance. This means that situation and current happening will
determine the direction of the affairs. For example, killing is bad and it
is an act that people frown at, but what of mercy killing or killing a
person to save one’s life. It’s a case of another good example of
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by
the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the
aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the
i) A citizen in a democracy should have the duty to vote. If it were up to
me, voting would be a requirement. What is wonderful about a
democracy is that we choose who will represent us. There is no point to
a democracy in which we do not participate.
ii) A citizen in a democracy should have an obligation to understand the
powers and duties of the government, generally set forth in a
constitution. If we do not know this, the government that does not act
properly has no checks upon it and can avoid carrying out its duties.
iii) A citizen in a democracy should have the responsibility of knowing
his or her rights, which are also generally set forth in a constitution. If
we do not know what our rights are, they are meaningless.
iv) A citizen in a democracy should always know who his or her
representatives are. If we do not know who is representing us, we do not
know whether or not that person is representing us properly, to whom
we should complain if that is the case, or to whom we should state our
own opinions and preferences.
A road accident refers to any accident involving at least one road
vehicle, occurring on a road open to public circulation, and in which at
least one person is injured or killed.
i) Distracted Driving
ii) Over Speeding
iii) Drunk Driving
iv) Reckless Driving
v) Bad Weather
vi) Bad road
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Theory!!Pls note there are four questions in section A and four from Section B.
-Unprotected sexual intercourse
-Unsecured blood transfusion
-Sharing of sharp objects
Mother to child transmission
-Unprotected sexual intercourse:People can get infected with HIV through sexual intercourse with infected partners especially when the sexual intercourse is casual and unprotected
-Unsecured blood transfusion:HIV can be spread by blood transfusion especially when the transfused blood is not properly screened
-Sharing of sharp objects:When you use the same syringe to inject more than one person, those injected stands a risk of being infected with HIV. People ho share sharp unsterilized and contaminated sharp objects like scissors, knives, manicure equipments,syringes, clippers, blades, ect stands a chance of being infected
-Mother to child transmission:A pregnant woman who has HIV can easily trnsfer the virus into her child at birth or during breast feeding
-Fever lasting for more than a month
-About 20% weight loss or loss of appetite
-Dry cough lasting for more than a month
-Itching stain infections
-Swelling around the neck, armpit and private part
-Oral thrush whitish sports in the mouth
2a) Human trafficking is the trade of humans, most commonly for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others
-LACK OF OPPORTUNITIES/UNEMPLOYMENT: There is no gain saying the fact that most people who give their consent to be trafficked did so believing there are better opportunities at destination which goes to say that the origin countries had limited or no opportunities for its citizenry
-IGNORANCE/ILLITERACY: It is said that knowledge is power. Those who are not aware of the ills and effects of human trafficking are more susceptible to fall prey to the traffickers than the others. Information on trafficking empowers people to be on guide and take measures to avoid being a victim
-SITUATION OF ARMED CONFLICT: Armed conflict is a two edged sword. On the part of origin or source victims would be willing to escape from the conflict area thereby becoming vulnerable. On the other hand, destination countries in conflict or war would demand for victims to help them
-GLOBALISATION:The world they say is a global village and as such recruitment has been made easy. The vulnerable only knows that his chance of survival economically is higher in developed societies
-GREED: The get rich quick syndrome has eaten deep into the minds of the young people in developing countries. Unfortunately, the society pays little emphasis on the source of wealth of their people making the youths eager to find ways to acquire wealth and be celebrated
-DESIRE TO EARN A LIVING: In Nigeria and most other African countries for instance, where person will graduate from the university and remain unemployed 3 to 4 years without any form of employment would not want to miss any opportunity that he feels will eliminate his desire to earn a meaningful living
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or part of a nation
-Citizenship by Birth ( jus sanguinis). If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well
-Citizenship by Registration:A person can be a citizen of a country through registration. This mostly occurs to women who marry foreign nationals. For instance, a Gambian woman married to a Nigerian may register as a citizen of Nigeria but she must satisfy certain conditions such as residing in Nigeria and should take the oath of allegiance to Nigeria and renounce her Gambian citizenship
-Citizenship by Naturalization:This is another way through which an individual can acquire citizenship in a country. Through this method, the individual must satisfy certain basic conditions such as in the case of Nigeria, the individual must have lived in Nigeria for not less than 15 years, he must have a job, he must be an honourable person, that is, not a criminal and must be recommended by a very important person in the country
-Citizenship by Descent:This is a method of acquiring citizenship of another country as a result of the fact that his grandparents are citizens of the country
Pubic Service is a body or a department in the executive arm of the Government responsible for the execution of the policies and programmes of the Government
-Tribalism: This has been the yardstick for choosing who to employ and sack in the Nigerian public service
-Political Instability : Constant and regular change of top rank office holders in public service brings about constant instability of rules and regulations. This constantly leads to the shortcomings in the public service
-Political Interference: Many Governments in power do not allow the free flow of duties due to their undue interference which at most times is only favorable to politicians
-Poor Orientation and Low Salaries: Public servants get poor or no orientations about their jobs. This is coupled with their low salary earnings as peanut which is another reason for shortcomings
-Lack of Qualified Personnel: Most people in various public service offices either neglect their right jobs or have little or no experience about it but carry out such services due to their search for greener pasture
-Inadequate Training Facilities: The Nigerian public service lacks adequate training facilities for staff improvement of skill
Civil society refers to any entity formed by a group of people with similar interests who come together to work on a common goal
-Civil society makes state at all level to be accountable, responsive and to be more effective. They help to limit and control the power of the state
-It promotes political participation through the process of educating people about the about their rights and obligations as democratic citizen and also encourage them to participate in election
-Building community; engagement and participation in voluntary associations also has the potential to strengthen bonds among citizens
-Socialization; civil society contributes to the formation and practice of democratic attitudes among citizens. Thus people learn to develop tolerance, mutual trust and the ability to relate with people
-It can also help to play an important role in meditating and helping to resolve conflict
It refers to the procedure of involving majority of the citizens of a country in the decision making processes, especially on issues that affect the welfare of the generality of the populace
-Bad Governance: The government of Nigeria for instance rules in a bad and carefree manner, their act does not motivate people thereby making people to ignore and nonchalant to political activities
-Rigging of election: so many citizens belief that no matter the level of security election are going to be rigged either directly or indirectly thereby they see voting as a waste of time and energy
-Past History of Political Occurrence: Due to the fact that some family members, friends and relatives have been victimized in the process of participating in political issues, because of this experience people decide not to participate in politics
-Violent Campaign: Sometimes, the way political parties carry out their carry out their campaigns appears too violent and this can lead to lack of interest in politics.