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i)Community taxes- It is a poll tax paid by every male adult of tax paying age and varied from Local council to local council. Infant, it is a capitations tax ie it is paid by every ale adult whether the person is unemployed, self employed.
ii)Libenses and fees- derive substantial revenue from fees, such fees are in respect of the use of council property such as municipal hall for social activities, market premises and stalls motor parks slaughter houses, wheel barrow and liquor shops charges are also made in respect of marriage, bicycle and dog licensees birth and death registration.
iii)Federal and state statutory allocation-This is a percentage of the local government get from national cake.
The new statutory allocation are as follows Federal government 54.68 percent state government 20.60. Percent
1)A military coup (carried out by Maj.
Nzeogwu which led to the death of Tafawa Belewa, etc)
2)A counter-coup (led by Gowon, which led to the brutal murder of Aguiyi Ironsi, Fajuyi, etc)
3)The 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom in the north
(persecution of Igbo people living in Northern Nigeria)- this is the imminent cause of the Nigerian civil war according to local and foreign war historians.
The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.
–The Title Holders
Zero party system may be defined as a type of governmental political arrangement in which political parties are permitted to operate for the purpose of forming a government on political party basis.
i)Politically stable government-
In a one-party, there is no change of government and one individual can lead the government for a long time before the button is transferred to another person.
ii)Ensures continuous economic development- In a one-party state, since the government stays in power for a very long time, it is able to draw economic programmes for the state and implement them without any interference.
iii)Allows for speedy decision-making
One-party system allows for quick decision making. This is because there is no other body to consult and reach compromises with. As soon as the party takes the decision, that is the final and has to be implemented.
iv)It is not divisive- In a one-party system, divisive tendencies are eliminated or brought to the barest minimum. This is most helpful in Africa where most time parties are formed on ethnic, tribal and religious lines.
v)Ensures national integration
Another advantage of a one-party system is that the entire nation is able to rally round the only party regardless of their ethnic, religious and cultural differences.
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A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government
To contest elections:In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways
Forming policies and programmes: Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society
Making laws:When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. Members of the ruling party follow the directions of party leaders, irrespective of their personal opinions
Parties form and run governments:Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want
Role of opposition:Parties that lose in elections, play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies
A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses
-One chamber or house changing and implementing the law is called unicameral legislature. There are two chambers or houses are present to amend and implement the law
-In the unicameral system, quick decisions and more accountability is possible whereas the accountability and the decision making processes are difficult and time consuming
-The number of members in the unicameral is usually less than the members of the bicameral system resulting in less expense in the unicameral
-The powers of the unicameral members are enough for making rude decisions and passing the law which is not feasible for the general public. The powers of the upper hand are controlled by the other hand and thus, the chances of bad decision making are less in the bicameral system.
The most potent weapon against military intervention in politics is good governance.All officials in whatever capacity should provide good leadership
It can also be prevented through efficiency and probity,honesty and transparency in the conduct of administration
Necessary atmosphere should be created for conduct of free and fair elections
It could be prevented with the elimination or reduction in the level of curroption .Curroption is injustice and it eventually result in social upheavals which had often attracted the millitary into government
Military intervention should be outlawed by the constitution
The people should always resist military intervention through the organisation of peaceful mass disobidience
The military should be completely depoliticised.They should imbibe the culture of keeping strictly to military function of defending the territorial integrity of the state
Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament
Discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council, make recommendations on it
Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations
Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and international collaboration in the economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, educational and health fields
Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might impair friendly relations among nations
Receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs
Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial assessments of Member States
Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of other United Nations councils and organs and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General
– The Preamble
– The Government
– The Territory
– Separation of Powers
The Preamble:This part of the constitution gives guidance to the constitution. Here we are given the chapter, sections and subsections of the constitution and pages where they can be found. The preamble is meant to direct or serve as a content page of the Nigerian constitution. The preamble could also be found on the 3rd to the with page of the Nigerian constitution of 1999
Government: there must be a government whether elective or not run the affairs of the state. The type of government does not matter. It may be a military regime coo loan administration, Oligarchy, Diarchy, Monarchy, all of which are discussed below, what is infect important for this aspect of our study is that there must be a government to be in-charge of the affairs of the states
The territory: A state, legally is a defined boundary, although, such boundary is suppose to be permanent, if it change at all, such changes must not be at random.It is the territorial entities
Separation of Powers: Separation of powers can be found in section 4, 5 and 6 of this sections delegate certain powers to be armor organs of Government in Nigeria.The Section 4 of the 1999 constitution talks about legislative arm of Government, Section 5 talk of the Executive and section 6 talks about solitary
Sovereignty: Sovereignty could be defined as the ability for a nation to be total control without external interference. Nigeria according to 1999 constitution is a sovereign state and it can be found in section 2 of the Nigeria constitution
Federalism: Federalism has to do with the division of Government, state and local government,And a federal system of government is attached by a ceremonial head known as the president it can be found in chapter part of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.
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