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A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government
To contest elections:In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways
Forming policies and programmes: Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society
Making laws:When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. Members of the ruling party follow the directions of party leaders, irrespective of their personal opinions
Parties form and run governments:Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want
Role of opposition:Parties that lose in elections, play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies

A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses
-One chamber or house changing and implementing the law is called unicameral legislature. There are two chambers or houses are present to amend and implement the law
-In the unicameral system, quick decisions and more accountability is possible whereas the accountability and the decision making processes are difficult and time consuming
-The number of members in the unicameral is usually less than the members of the bicameral system resulting in less expense in the unicameral
-The powers of the unicameral members are enough for making rude decisions and passing the law which is not feasible for the general public. The powers of the upper hand are controlled by the other hand and thus, the chances of bad decision making are less in the bicameral system.

The most potent weapon against military intervention in politics is good governance.All officials in whatever capacity should provide good leadership
It can also be prevented through efficiency and probity,honesty and transparency in the conduct of administration
Necessary atmosphere should be created for conduct of free and fair elections
It could be prevented with the elimination or reduction in the level of curroption .Curroption is injustice and it eventually result in social upheavals which had often attracted the millitary into government
Military intervention should be outlawed by the constitution
The people should always resist military intervention through the organisation of peaceful mass disobidience
The military should be completely depoliticised.They should imbibe the culture of keeping strictly to military function of defending the territorial integrity of the state

Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament
Discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council, make recommendations on it
Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations
Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and international collaboration in the economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, educational and health fields
Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might impair friendly relations among nations
Receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs
Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial assessments of Member States
Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of other United Nations councils and organs and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General

– The Preamble
– The Government
– The Territory
– Separation of Powers
– Sovereignty
– Federalism

The Preamble:This part of the constitution gives guidance to the constitution. Here we are given the chapter, sections and subsections of the constitution and pages where they can be found. The preamble is meant to direct or serve as a content page of the Nigerian constitution. The preamble could also be found on the 3rd to the with page of the Nigerian constitution of 1999
Government: there must be a government whether elective or not run the affairs of the state. The type of government does not matter. It may be a military regime coo loan administration, Oligarchy, Diarchy, Monarchy, all of which are discussed below, what is infect important for this aspect of our study is that there must be a government to be in-charge of the affairs of the states
The territory: A state, legally is a defined boundary, although, such boundary is suppose to be permanent, if it change at all, such changes must not be at random.It is the territorial entities
Separation of Powers: Separation of powers can be found in section 4, 5 and 6 of this sections delegate certain powers to be armor organs of Government in Nigeria.The Section 4 of the 1999 constitution talks about legislative arm of Government, Section 5 talk of the Executive and section 6 talks about solitary
Sovereignty: Sovereignty could be defined as the ability for a nation to be total control without external interference. Nigeria according to 1999 constitution is a sovereign state and it can be found in section 2 of the Nigeria constitution
Federalism: Federalism has to do with the division of Government, state and local government,And a federal system of government is attached by a ceremonial head known as the president it can be found in chapter part of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.

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NECO Government Obj Answers

Question 1)
1.Manifesto: If a political party has a good manifesto this may produce overwhelming support for the party at election
2.Organisation: well planned organisational structure can produce better chances for a party at electrons
3.Unity:this can help to brighten the chances of the party at election
4.Spread of membership: A political party has more chances of victory at polls of followership cut across the society
5.Adequate funding:A party with enough found can organize the best of campaigns and rallies by engaging the service of an advertising agency for a well produced party

Question 2)
1.One of the problems facing common wealth is the fact that its member-nations belong to many different other organisations which make them to have divided interest and loyalty to common wealth
2.Many member-nations of the common wealth as a result of the fact that the head of the organisation is not elected do not recognize and respect the head of the organisation
3.Member-nations’ military personnel are no longer exclusively trained in british military institutions
4.The common wealth has no charter like U.N.O and O.A.U and therefore,therefore,there are no formal rules governing it
5.South Africa’s apartheid policy is still a problem that is threatening to polarize member-nations of the common wealth

Question 3)
1. Constituencies:The country should be divided into constituencies on equal representations
2. Independent electoral commission:A body to conduct the election known as electoral commission should be made to be independent and non-partisan
3.Proper arrangement:The electoral commission should make proper arrangement to compile names of eligible voters
4.Display list: Voters lists should be publicly displayed for objections and complains that may arise from voters
5.Security: Adequate security arrangement must be made to create conducive atmosphere during polling day devoid of any form of harassment and intimidation of voters
6.Adequate materials: All necessary election materials like ballot boxes,paper etc should be made available at the appropriate time to avoid problem of logistics
7.Result of the election should be as soon as counting is completed

Question 4)
1.The ogboni was the third organ of governmentof the old oyo empire.The ogboni or earth cult was a secret society made up of prominent diviners and headed by the oluwo.
2.One of their constitutionalduties was to check the excesses of the oyomesi such as the rejection of an alafin
3.It was equally the function of the ogboni to mediate between the alaafin and the oyomesi. Also the ogboni performed judicial functions especially in cases involving spilling of blood.
4.Oluwo as chief “ifa”.Priest controlled ifa oracle which could accept or reject Bashorun’s decision to command’s suicide thus he could check an ambitiuos Bashorun

Question 5)
1.Public trial of the accused person not secret trial.
2.The press must be free not gagged
3.Citizens should be granted the right to appeal against any judgment they feel like
4.There should be no delayed Justice which will lead to denied Justice.
5.A sovereign parliament will also aid successful operation of the rule of Law

Question 6)
1.The military strength of Nigeria: The strength of the army,air-force and navy can affect her foreign policy
2.Historical background: Nigeria was colonised by britain and this co,onial experience can affect her foreign policy
3.National or domestic interest:this should form the basis of Nigeria’s foreign policy.The interest of the people,their economic and social well being should be promoted.This has the capacity of affecting Nigeria’s foreign policy
4.Geographical location: Nigeria is located inAfrica and has made it clear that,as we are in Africa,Africa should be the colonization of African continent,supporting the struggle for eradication of apartheid policy in south Africa etc
5.Public opinion on issues: Opinion of the people on issues of national importance can influence Nigeria’s foreign policy
6.Government: Nigeria’s foreign policy is also affected by the type of government we have since Nigeria gained independence in 1960,we have had two main types of governmenti.e civilian and military.The military governments have been associated with amount foreign policy while that of the civilians have been lackadaisical

Question 7)
1.Political instability: frequent change of govt results in constant changes of top officals ofcivil services like ministers or commissioners,Head of services and possibly the director general and rampant change of policies which affects civil services in Nigeria
2.Negative attitude to work: civil servants regard their jobs as government work that do not require seriousness
3.Poor conduction of services: the civil servants do not earn good salaries and they lack many motivational incentives that will make them to work harder and attract highly qualified personnel to the civil service
4.Bribing and corruption: the effectiveness of the civil services has been slowed down by bribery and corruption to the extent that civil servants fail to perform their official duties as they look forward to bribery before doing their job
5.Tribalisms: it has become the yardstick for determining who to employ and fire in the nigerian civil services.

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