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See Previous Neco Literature Answers SECTION I
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Life in Sodom and Gomorrah centers at the Kakria’s life with her family. A mother of three lovely children Obiora, Essie and Ottu. She lived In a decent neighborhood in Accra. Thus she ran into Fofo at the Agbloghoshie market while shopping for vegetables. Thus 14 years Fofo is a street child living in a part of Accra named “Sodom and Gomorrah” a place that is not good for anybody talk more of children. The fictional land of Sodom and Gomorrah is filled with abandoned boys and girls by their parents. This these street children are busy watching adult funks and drinking alcohol among them. There is no s*x disparity in that they sleep together naked and under the influence of alcohol.
Fofo spends his Saturday night across the road with her friends but she finds herself smiling in the dream thus in that dream space, she saw herself living in a roof. In the same roof, she was sheltered when rain begins to fall, it is because of these experiences in the dream that Fofo was smiling while sleeping. This her dream is far removed from the realities of the life they live in Sodom and Gomorrah where they have no shelter. As it has been usual with children they defecate where ever they see not minding intruding eyes of people.
Thus Fofo is still dreaming when one of the street lords “poison” tries to rape her in her shack. There is also the experience of bullying everybody by another street lord called Macho.
Author Amma Parko seems to have lived in Accra and near the market place where the crime happened thus she evokes the vicious cycles of poverty and violence that drives children to street and women to prostitution. Thus life in Sodom and Gomorrah as it relates to “Amma Parko faceless ” can be best describes as a land filled with immorality and lawlessness. It can be described as a state of nature where life is short, nasty and brutish.
Flashback is one of the narrative techniques used in Literature to throw more light on event of the past as it relate to the present event.
Amma Darko uses flashback in faceless to tell this story of both maa Tsuru and the circumstances surrounding her birth. This is also used to tell us why fofo and others run into the street. It is also used to reveal to us why Maa Tsuru locks herself up for days with her two boys on account of fear of poison trailing her. Through the flashback we are that poison used to live in one room with his stepfather , mother and five siblings poison suffers torture in the stepfather’s hands; the man is constantly beating him when the torture becomes unbearable for poison he runs away from home at eight years. He becomes a street boy surviving in the street. He grows up to become a street lord and Vivian.
Poison suffered child abuse physically and s******y and emotionally. This left a very big scar on poison who recorded the first instance of child abuse on fofo a fourteen years old girl who decide to sleep in an open shade at agbogloshire market in order to wake up early for her job of washing carrots. Poison tires to rape her there. Through flashback we learn that maa tsuru’s first husband kwei abandon her after fathering four children with her.
Ever before Yaremi become a widow, the narrow road at Kufi wavered with foliage of trees has been ear-marked as widow’s road. It is the habit of widows to sing songs of sorrow while walking on the road.
Widows in Kufi land share many notions in common and are joined by common sense of loss, including the loss of dignity and of status.
They also shed tears as well in their tattered postures:
Our hairs are matted and unkempt.
No necklace and no earrings… we are the subjugated people of the world with no hope and no security.
Moreso, these widows are denied pleasure of dancing as they reassure themselves that one day they will dance like other free women:
“when everything is over and we cast off these black garments, we will dance again”
Just like Yaremi, Dedewi suffers terribly after the death of her husband. Dedewi is forced by her husband relatives to sit in a dark room with the corpse of her husband and make confessions, which she knows nothing about. In the same vein, Fayoyin is another victim of humiliation following the death of her husband. She is brought before the mourners who sprinkle cold water on her head and orders a barber to deal with her hairs:
The burger propped Fayoyin’s head between his thighs clenched his teeth and began scraping away with a sharp crocodile nacer blade.
T head is seraped even to the scalp and rubbed with wood ash ayoyin, while wailing bitterly loses her voice. Her former appearance totally disfigured as she looks like a mad woman. In a similar development. Radeke is another widow that suffers humiliation. She is breed to knell before the dead body and sing the widows traditional song of innocence and lamentation.
CASTLE OF OTRANTO
In the Gothic novel, the female characters are predominantly passive and this is mostly characterized by the gentle and obedient mien of lady Hippolita, Prince Manfred’s wife and lady of the castle who is always submissive and supportive of her husbands actions,not weighing the merits or otherwise, not even considering it’s effects on herself and her children.
For example, when faced with the death of Conrad, Hippolita, even in her sad state could only think about the feeling of her husband, while Manfred, reacts in a tempest of rage, asking to marry his son’s betrothed as the only thing he could think of his who should succeed him as the Lord of the castle (siring and hair).
In the vein, anytime a conflict arises in the work, while the man stay and fight, the women are portrayed as cowards who run and hide in the face of conflict thereby portraying them as coward.
Another pointer is shown on how the women dote on upon their men and attend to the in firm while the men gleefully venture to confront the cause of danger and bravely confront it ( the alpha gender).
Likewise, while Manfred and Frederic, Isabella’s father were bargaining on marriage, the woman’s consent were not sought, buttressing the fact that they had no clear voice.
To cap everything, the initial conflict in the novel is due to Manfred wanting an heir (a son) despite having an agile, virile daughter which also boldly paints a society where only male inherits and the female, inherited.
The roles and significance of Max’s defence of Bigger Thomas is one that contributes to the message of the novel. During his defence, he exposes the illogisticalities. For instance, he highlights the absurdity in renting houses to blacks including Bigger’s family in the black belt and refuses to do so in other areas, thereby keeping many a stranger to the family chauffeur. He points out the contradiction in allowing a black man to be so close to the allures of western civilization only to deny him their enjoyment. Through his personal and professional counsel, he is able to move Bigger from a great deal of ignorance to a reasonable level of enlightenment. He is also able to make him feel like a man with dignity. It is the effect of these efforts which make Bigger wish not to die again.
Max role here is significant as the mouthpiece of the Blacks. He airs his views to the world through his defence on the exploitation and discrimination of the Blacks in the society. He stands for equality.
In literature, the term symbol symbolism is an object, a character or figure used to represent abstract ideas or even concepts. In Native Son, there is every indication that is MrsDalton’s blindness plays a crucial role in the circumstances of Bigger’s killing of Mary, in that it provides Bigger an escape route of smothering Mary, just to prevent her from disclosing his identity in the bedroom. Viewing this in a symbolic level, this set of circumstances is a metaphor of the vicious circle of racism. This agrees with the fact that as Mrs. Dalton’s inability to see Bigger causes him to turn to violence, so is the inability of whites to see blacks as individuals causes blacks to live their lives in fear and hatred. Therefore, Mrs. Dalton’s blindness represents the mental blindness of white Americans who see black race as anything less than human beings. The black world on their side is also blind to see the whites as their equals rather than oppressive entities.
Another symbolic and significant object displayed in the novel is the Christian cross. In the Christian tenet of faith, the cross is used to denote the compassion and sacrifice of Christ on the cross of Calvary Reverend Hammond, while Bigger is in jail offers him a cross. The cross makes Bigger to think of himself as Christ like, thereby imagining that he is sacrificing himself in order to wash away the shame of being black, just as Christ died to wash away the sins of the world. On the contrary, after Bigger had seen the image of a burning cross, he begins to associate cross with hatred and racism that have battered his life. For this cause, the context of cross in “Native Son” contradicts the Christian context of cross.
Also in book two, there is falling of snow which turns into a blizzard that leads to Bigger’s capture by the white police. Before his capture, Bigger falls to the ground and his eyes, ears, mouth etc are covered with white snows. By implication, Bigger’s senses are overwhelmed with a literal whiteness symbolizing the metaphorical Whiteness” (the white race) he feels has been pressing down upon him.
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