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Goat weed|Ageratum conyzoides|Wind
Siam weed|Chromolaena odorata|Wind
(2bi) Physical factor
(2bii) Economical factors
– Insufficient fund to acquire land
– Land tenure system
– Land use and reformation
– It leads to unpleasant odours
– It renders pond water undrinkable
– It leads to suffocation of aquatic animals such as fish
– It leads to eutrophication
-Sewage should be properly treated before discharge into pond
-Avoid indiscriminate sewage disposal on water body
-Sanction should be placed on use of chemical for fishing
-There should be regulations in the use of chemical fertilizer on the farm
CROPS | Classification base of life Cycle
Oil palm |Perennial
Soil Component | Percentage volume
(i) soil water | 25%
(ii) Organic matter | 5%
(iii)Inorganic mater| 45%
(iv) Soil air | 25%
[Pick Any THREE]
(i) Ring method
(ii) Foliar method
(iii) Broadcasting method
(iv) Row Application
(v) Band Placement
Spacing is the distance between the plant stands in order to allow proper ventilation within plant farm while Thinning refers to as the removal of excess plants or weak plants to allow the healthy one to germinate
Deep loamy soil rich in organic matter
9m × 9m
[Pick Any SIX]
(i) It helps to create job opportunity
(ii) It is a good source of income
(iii) It is used for tourism and recreation
(iv) It is used for research purposes
(v) For conservation of wildlife
(vi) Forest serves as a buffer in natural disasters like flood and rainfalls
(vii) Protecting watersheds and reducing or slowing the amount of erosion and chemicals that reach waterways
Apiculture is the practice of keeping bees as well as the manufacturing of honey and beeswax.
(i) Useful life = 2009 – 2000 = 9 years
(ii) salvage value = D3000.00
(iii) Total depreciation = D12,000 – D3,000 = D9000.00
(iV) Annual depreciation = total depreciation/useful life = D9,000/9 = D1000.00
A demand schedule is a table which shows the different quantities of a commodity which consumers are willing to buy at various prices at a particular time.
Supply curve is a graphical representation of the correlation between the cost of a good or service and the quantity supplied for a given period.
(i) Agricultural Development Programme (ADP)
(ii) Farm settlement scheme
(iii) Agro-service centres
(iv) Research institutes
(i) Nitrogen fixing bacteria
(iii) Decay organic matters
(iv) Through nitrosomonas
-It makes able bodied me to migrate from rural to urban areas in search of job
-Poor processing facilities for farm produce
-Shortage of water for irrigation purposes for all season cropping
-Poor health services reduces the productivity of farmers
-Available farm inputs are of inferior quality,outdated and crude
-Farm inputs like chemicals,fertilizers,tools and implements are grossly inadequate
-Modern farm inputs are not produced in Nigeria
-Farm inputs are expensive to buy and maintain
-Used for drawing farm implements like plough,harrows,ridgers etc
-It has hydraulic control system which aids the lifting of coupled implements
-It can be used to carry harvested crops or other farm products from the farm to the market
-For bush clearing
-For felling trees and stumps
-For levelling ground
-Service at regular interval
-Replace worn out or weld broken parts
-Adhere strictly to manual or manufacturer’s instruction
-Routine and regular changing of oil
i)Water is essential for the process of photosynthesis.
ii)Water also help to maintains the turgidity of plant.
iii)Water protects plant from adverse condition like drought, frost etc.
iv)Water serves as the solvent and carrier of food nutrients for the growth of plants.
ii)the export of alkalinity in produce.
iii)Parent material – type of rocks from which the soil developed.
iv)Rainfall – soils under high rainfall conditions are more acid than soils formed under dry conditions.
v)Soil organic matter – soil organisms are continuously decomposing organic matter.
Adult fluke lay eggs that are passed out onto pasture in the faeces. the egg, hatches and migrates in thin films of moisture, actively seeking the snail host. Within the snail they undergo two further developmental stages, including multiplication, eventually becoming infective cercariae, which emerge from the snail when the temperature and moisture levels are suitable. The cercariae migrate onto wet herbage, encystingas metacercariae, the highly resilient infective stage of the liver fluke. Following ingestion, the young flukes migrate to the liver, through which they tunnel, causing considerable tissue damage. The i*******n is patent about 10-12 weeks after the meta-cercariae are ingested. The whole cycle takes 18-20 weeks.
Loamy soil is the type of soil that has moderate water infiltration and retention
abilities good for cassava growth.
i)Clear land of all grass, brush and trees
ii)Plough, rotovate and ridge
iii)Apply limestone at 2-4 t/ha before rotovating
iv)Form ridges 1m apart and 25-40 cm high
Cassava is propagated by cuttings, by planting pieces of stem.
Setts are planted 50 cm to 90 cm on the ridge at a 45o angle leaving 2-3 nodes above ground.
Use contact and/or pre-emergent herbicide to control weeds for the first three months of growth (vegetative stage).
Hand-weeding using hoes are normally recommended after 3 months, if necessary, since the enlarged crop canopy should limit weed growth after 3 months.
When soil tests are not done, a general recommendation for fertilizing cassava can be a. NPK (12:24:12) applied at the rate of 336 kg/ha at 6 weeks after planting followed by 16:8:24 at 16 weeks after planting
Cassava matures between 8 to 12 months after planting. Cutting back plants 2 weeks before harvesting should cause tubers to mature and increase yields by 10%. Do not weed before harvesting.
The storage method include its use in the productions of Garri,cassava bread, chips, cassava powder
LAND TENURE SYSTEm: is a system in which a party occupies or holds some area of
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, “a plant in the wrong place”
It is transmitted by aphid Aphis craccivora.
i)It forms green and yellow colour in the plants
ii)Distortion and stunting of the plants.
i)Use of insecticide
ii)Uprooting affected plants
i)By washing of the feeders and drinkers regularly
ii)Administration of vaccine and medication to birds
iii)Fumigation and proper sanitation should be done before the arrival of the bird
iv)Provision of medication and vaccination
-It prevents secondary i*******n caused by horn injuries
-It creates more space for animals
-It prevents injuries to the body of other animals
-It makes it safer during vaccination or deworming of animals
– packaging and packing
– food processing
-Inadequate for a land tenure system
-inadequate finance and credit facilities
-poor marketing system
-inadequate farm input
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