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Animal Husbandry OBJ:
(i) Bees make honey out of flower nectar for use as a food source
(ii) Bees play an important role in the pollination of many flowering plants, thus increasing the yield of certain crops
(iii) Honey is a highly nutritious
(iv) The market potential for honey and wax is high, so it serves as a means of income.
(v) Bee Pollen and Propolis are natural remedies
(i) Join a local beekeeping association
(ii) Choose a Site
(iii) Create a Stand
(iv) Build a Hive
(v) Consider your equipment
(vi) Get Some Bees
(vii) Review your local by-laws and register your hives
(vii) Protect yourself
(viii) Look and learn
(ix) Keep notes
(i) Use a hybrid or crossbred female.
(ii) Satisfy the nutritional requirements of the sow both in pregnancy and lactation.
(iii) Bring a healthy sow into the farrowing house.
(iv) Achieve good birth weights.
(v) Ensure each pig receives maximum colostrum at birth.
Artificial pasture refers to an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes which are deliberately planted by man.
(i) extend the growing season of a pasture
(ii) increase the organic matter content of the soil over time because of grass root systems
(iii) reduce weed encroachment
(iv) reduce erosion
(v) produce higher yields
(vi) improve the palatability
(i) mixed production
(ii) intensive farming systems “landless”
(iii) extensive production system
(I) it includes both agriculture and livestock
(ii)it can be either intensive or extensive.
(iii)it used for exploitation of both irrigated or non-irrigated land and they are common in some parts of America, Europe, and Asia.
(i) it is mainly used for livestock.
(ii)it is used to breed pigs, chickens, laying hens, cattle and even fish
(iii)they are common in North America, Europe, and Asia and in heavy populated areas in general, where the demand for meat and proteins is very high.
(i)it is used on large non-cultivated land where animals can graze freely
(ii)it is used for cattle, to produce meat and milk, sheep and goats.
(iii)It is more common in Central and South America
(i) Castration reduces male aggression and thereby makes males easier to
(ii) There is a risk of unwanted matings if there are uncastrated males on the farm, other than those required for breeding.
(iii) Due apparently to traditional butchers’ prejudices, castrated male meat is marketed higher than that of uncastrated meats.
(iv) Performance and conversion rates can be itnpr<>ved by castration.
(v) It helps in preventing the production of unwanted or undesirable offspring
(i) The cheaper methods of castration; which the farmer can do himself, require a degree of skill. With such methods, there is a risk of i*******n.
(ii) The alternative, of calling in a veterinary surgeon, adds to costs.
(c) Castration involves some time.
(6bi) DRAW & LABEL PARTS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF A DOMESTIC FOW
Below are Previous WAEC 2019 Animal Husbandry Theory and Obj Answers
The ration is the number of feeds given to farm animal within 24hrs which comprises a careful combination of carbohydrate, protein, fat and oil, vitamin and mineral
Here the to be formed is either to be feed for an increase in size, so therefore it influences the formation of feed for the animal
Age of animals influence feeds Formation such that the feed to be produced depending on the age of the animal e.g a male or young chicken cannot be given a finished mash.
Feeds are also produced base on the purpose at which the farmer is rearing the animal’s example (a chicken that is to be raised for the purpose of having eggs will be given a particular type of feed meet for having of the egg.
The scarcity of ingredients in a particular area also cause inability feed that needs that ingredient
i)cervical air sac
ii)clavicular air sac
– it is the last stop before the faces
– it is eliminated through the a**l canal
– it functions as body urine
– it contains the testicles called (tester)
– it contains the cupula, a cluster of sensitive hairs embedded in the jelly-like mound.
i) Cervical air sec:
– the extension of lungs in birds
ii) Claviculae air sac:
– it permits a un individual flow of air
– lighter of the sull or improve voice
– an integer part which air away hen
During mastication or chewing of cassava in the mouth of a pig. The salivary gland of the pig produces a digestive enzyme called ptyalin which acts on the cassava thereby converting the cassava starch to maltose. The salver also helps for the lubrication of the food curd(cassava tuber).
i) Loss of Appetite
ii) Excessive Thirst
Drenching is the administering of the rug to an animal by mouth into the stomach, usually by force, to rid them of helminths parasites, such as roundworm, flukes, and tapeworm.
Dipping is is an efficient method of delivering pesticide or other liquid treatments to a large herd to protect sheep from infestation against external parasites such as itch mite, blow-fly, ticks, and lice.
i) Respiratory system
ii) Digestive system
iii) Reproductory system
i) Four-chambered stomach
ii) Presence of a false stomach
iii) Absence of gizzard
iv) Absence of crop
v) Absence of proventriculus
i) It doesn’t have a four-chambered stomach
ii) Presence of gizzard
iv) Presence of crop
v) Presence of proventriculus
i) Rumination is the process by which the ruminant animals regurgitates previously consumed feed and masticates it a second time.
ii) Coprophagy is the consumption of feces. In some animal species, it is seen as normal behavior, like rabbits Doing that allows tough plant materials to be digested more efficiently by passing twice through the digestive tract.
It increases weaning weights in cattle and lambs, compensation for low milk production, and a smoother transition to feedlot rations.
It promotes maximum milk production from the very beginning of the lactation.
It increases the rate of o*******n, hence, lambing rate.
i) Increased diversity of plant and animal species.
ii) Control of invasive plant species, such as yellow starthistle.
iii) Habitat restoration for threatened and endangered species.
iv) Controlling erosion from water runoff for improved water quality.
ii) Avoiding of overgrazing
-Not enough drinking water
-No feed or decreased feed intake
-Low calcium in the feed
-Newcastle disease (NCD)
-Infectious bronchitis (IB)
-For food production e.g milk and meat
-They are used as a source of power on the farm.
-They serve as a source of hides.
-They serve as a source of income to farmers
-They provide raw materials for industry
-Their horns are used for decoration
-Poultry Eggs are used for food
-They serve as raw materials for industry
-They serve as a source of income for farmers
-it serves as garden aid
-It is a cure for the common hangover
-Carbohydrates serve as a source of energy in the animal body
-Carbohydrate functions as Hormone in animals
-Carbohydrate functions as Antigen in animals
-Carbohydrate functions as a framework in the animal body
-Nose and Nasal Cavity
-Bronchi and Bronchioles
-Allergic Rhinitis and Enzootic Nasal Granuloma in animals
-Sinusitis in animals
Exhalation is the flow of the respiratory current out of the organism
Inhalation is the process of breathing in, taking air and sometimes other substances into the lungs
Peristalsis is a series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food to different processing stations in the digestive tract
O*******n is when an egg moves from the ovaries into the fallopian tubes and is ready for f***********n
rumination is the way that animals eat, storing their partially-digested food in a special stomach called a rumen, to be brought back up later and chewed more thoroughly
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
-It has one stomach chamber|It has four compartment stomach
-Does not have teeth in its mouth part|It has teeth in its mouth part
-It has crop|Does not have a crop
-It cannot regurgitate|It can be regurgitated
– Controlled Stocking
i)Carbohydrate – Glucose
ii) Protein – Amino acids
iii) Fats and oil-Fatty acids and glycerol
-Protein is necessary for building and repairing body tissues in farm animals.
-Proteins provide energy which breaks down into amino acids during digestion and provides four c******s per gram.
-Proteins produce hormones which are chemicals produced by glands in one part of the body that help coordinate activities and communicate with other areas.
-Proteins provide antibodies which are specialized protein configurations that provide a specific immune defense against invaders
Animal improvement is a complex process which involves modification of the genotype and the environment in a harmonious fashion
the bringing into the farm or a country high-quality breeds of livestock with a high productive capacity and other good desirable characteristics from another farm or country
i)Breeds which are not originally present in the home country are introduced
ii)It leads to the absence of pests and diseases.
iii)It enhances greater productivity
i)It may introduce new disease to the area
ii)It may introduce new pests to the area
iii)It may not perform maximally
progeny Selection is the process of picking or selecting from a mixed population, those animals with breeding value as parents
-It ensures that only the best naturally available animals are selected
-Animals with desirable characteristics are selected
-Animals with undesirable characteristics are detected and rejected
-Animals from best breeds are bred for distribution
-It also reduced the spread or parasites associated with breeding stocks
-It is easier and less expensive than natural mating. Since the farmer is saved the expense of maintaining a herd or male animal
-It is easier and cheaper to import the semen of exotic breeds rather than the male animals themselves
-It is possible to service many females of different size leading to the production of many offspring