Neco GCE 2017 Chemistry Theory & Obj Answers Portal
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i)Temporary hardness is caused by dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate
ii)Permanent hardness is caused by dissolved calcium sulfate.
i)Temporary Hardness can be Removed By Boiling
ii)Permanent hardness can be removed by … washing soda (sodium carbonate); ion exchange; the use of polyphosphate water softeners.
i)Calcium ions in the water are good for children’s teeth and bones.
ii)Some brewers prefer using hard water for making beer.
i)It is more difficult to form a lather with soap.
ii)Scum may form in a reaction with soap, wasting the soap.
A saturated solution is a chemical solution containing the maximum concentration of a solute dissolved in the solvent.
– Anthracite Coal
– Bituminous coal
– Sub-bituminous coal
The anthracite coal: They are the purest forms of coal
– Zinc is not a transition metal because it forms only Zn2 ions with all the 3d electrons present.
– Zn not a transition metal, because it forms only Sc3 ions with n d-electrons
Fine Chemicals: This is a chemical compound made in relatively small amounts and in a comparatively pure state.
petroleum gas and petrol->kerosene->diesel->asphalt
III-petroleum gas and petrol
19R-1s^2 2s^2 2P^6 3S^2 3P^6 4S^1
10S-1S^2 2S^2 2P^6
24T-1S^2 2S^2 2P^6 3S^2 3P^6 4S^2 3D^4
I- AgNO3(aq) and BaCl2
II-BaCl2 and Na2SO4
III-Ca(NO3)2 and H2CO3(aq)
Le chatelier’s principle states that for a reversible reaction in equilibrium, if any of the factors(temperature, concentration, pressure) keeping the system in equilibrium is altered, the system will shift to adjust the change
I – It will shift from left to right
II – It will shift from left to right
III – It will favor the forward reaction by increasing the product
Kc = [NH]2
i) increasing the surface area
By adding catalyst to the reaction
ii)0.896dm^3 of CO2 was produced by 4g of caco3
If 100g of caco3—–1mole of co2(22.4dm3)
i)atom the smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist.
ii)molecule is a group of atoms bonded
together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
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(i)neutral to Litmus paper
(ii)Has a boiling point of 100°C
=[Na] / [Na2So4] × 100%
=23/ (23×2) +32+ (16×4) × 100%
=23/142 × 100%
Percentage of mass of a sodium
[O4] /[Na2SO4] × 100%
=(4×16) / 142 × 100%
=64/142 × 100%
Percentage of mass of oxygen
-Bauxite (Al2O3 +2H2O)
I = (A) Is2 , 2s2 ,2p2
II= (B) Is2 , 2s2, 2p6,3s2
III=(C) Is2, 2s2, 2p6
IV=(D) Is2 ,2s2, 2p6, 3s2,3p5
V=(E) Is2, 2s2, 2p4
A Standard solution is a solution of known concentration.it is a solution containing known amount (in grams or mols) of a substance in a known volume of a solution.
A concentrated solution contains lesser molecule of water than a dilute solution
(ii) complex sugar
Insert a glowing splinter into a test tube containing the unknown gas the rekindling of the glowing splinter indicates the presence of oxygen
(i)Oxidation is a process involving on loss of electrons
(ii)Reduction is a process involving the removal at electronegative elements as well as the addition of electro positive elements
(i)Nitrogen is a colourless,odourless and tasteless gas
(ii)it is slightly lighter than air
X represents urea [(NH2)2Co)]
Y represents water[H2o]
Chlorine|35|17|18|1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^5
Fluorine|18|9|10|1s^2 2s^2 2p^5
No of moles= Mass/Molar mass
No of moles=0.125mole
Relative atomic Mass=
(18 × 1/3) + (20 × 2/3)
(2ci)Faraday’s second law of electrolysis states that, when the same quantity of electricity is passed through several electrolytes, the mass of the substances deposited are proportional to their respective chemical equivalent or equivalent weight.
Single line represents the electrode/electrolyte reaction
– Double lines represents interface in the full cell
Polymerization is the process whereby two or more monomers link together to form a compound of high molecular mass called the polymer
(i)It is used as a fuel in rockets
(ii)It is sometimes uses as an anti-freeze
(iii)it is used to dissolve soaps,perfumes etc
(i)high melting and boiling point
(ii)Good conductors of heat and electricity
(iii)Have characteristic lustre
Zn, Ca, Au, Pb
Strong electrolytes ionize completely but weak electrolytes only partially ionizes.
Ethene is prepared from ethanol in two stage
1st stage==>heat ethanol with excess Conc H2SO4 acid at 170°C
C2H5OH(aq) + H2SO4 ==>C2H5HSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
2nd stage==>Heat the resulting ethyl hydrogentetraoxo-sulphate(iv)
C2H5HSO4(aq) ==>C2H4(g) +H2SO4(aq)
The Ethene produce is passed through Conc NaOH to remove impurities
(i)Mechinery should be improved so that more efficient fuel combustion occurs
(ii)People should be educated to make them aware of the causes and dangers of pollution
Efflorescent substance loses water to the surrounding with deliquescent substance absorbs and turn into solution
(i)It is used for absorbing carbon(iv) oxide in the laboratory
(ii)It is used in making soap
(iii)it is used in refining petroleum
(i)addition of soda
(ii)addition of zeolite
the solubility of KCl increase at a constant rate with the rise in temperature while the solubility of NaCl is independent of temperature
PH of a solution is measure of the molar concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution
(i)A is most acidic
(ii)E is most basic
(iii)C is neutral
(i)gases are made up of molecules which are in constant random motion
(ii)the particles do not attract each other
(iii)during motion the molecules of the gas collides with one another and with the walls of container
P 1 = 320MMHg
P 2 = 760MMHg
V 1 = 220Cm ^ 3
V 2 =?
T 1 = 22°C
T 2 = 100°C
using P 1V 1/ T 1= P 2V 2/ T 2
V 2 = 320 × 220 × 100 / 22 × 760
V 2 = 7040000 / 16720
V 2 = 421. 05cm ^ 3
(i)it is used for respiration
(ii)it is used in industries for removal of carbon sulphur and impurities in pig iron
(iii)oxygen is used as propelants in space rocket .
(I)solution A is starch solution, sample B is Iodine
(II)the colouration is formed due to the formation of an Iodine starch complex
(i)Iodine is used in treatment of goitre
(ii)Iodine is used in making dye for colour photography
dalton’s law of partial pressure states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressureexerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
C – 4.08/12, H – 0.68/1, O – 5.46/16
0.34/0.34, 0.68/034, 0.34/0.34
1, 2, 1.
The emperical formula is CH2O
( CH2O)n =60
the molecular formular is C2H202
(ii)A is activation energy, B is DH(Negative)
(i)removal of carbon(iv)oxide
(ii)liquetying the air
vander waal forces
fats have higher melting point than oil because fats are more denser
(i)it is poisonous
(ii)it is 2,5 times denser than air
(iii)it is greenish-yellow gas with a choking smell
Zn^2+ has comppletely filled d-orbitals and there are no vacant d-orbitals for the transition of electrons while Sc^3+ has completely empty d-orbital and there are no electrons for d-d transition thus they are colourless